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Hadrat Ali’s Final Invitation to Hadrat Mu'awiyah

Hadrat Ali (R.A.) now turned his attention towards Hadrat Mu'awiyah (R.A.). He was then ruling over the whole Islamic State with the exception of Syria. 
The peace minded Hadrat Ali (R.A.) wanted a peaceful settlement. 
He, therefore, wrote a letter to Hadrat Mu'awiyah (R.A.) asking him to take pledge of loyalty at his hand in the interest of Islam and the unity of the Muslims. 
But Hadrat Mu'awiyah again demanded of him to avenge Hadrat Uthman’s assassins first.

The show of Hadrat Uthman's blood-stained shirt and the chopped-off fingers of his wife, Hadrat Nailah, was still going on in the Jami' Masjid of Damascus. 
The powerful Syrians had rallied round Hadrat Mu'awiyah. 
On the other hand Hadrat Ali (R.A.) was still unable to overcome the insurgents. When Hadrat Amir Mu'awiyah's messenger came to Hadrat Ali to put the demand to hand over the assassins, 10,000 men of Hadrat Ali’s army said with one voice: "All of us are the assassins of Uthman (R.A.)." Hadrat Ali (R.A.) then said to the messengers, Hadrat Muslimah, "You can see for yourself the situation. 
I am still unable to find out the real assassins." But Hadrat Mu'awiyah was determined not to give up his demand. Hadrat Ali (R.A.), finding no other way, was compelled to declare war against Hadrat Mu'awiyah (R.A.).